Why does endometriosis cause pain?

There are several forms of endome­trio­sis. They all share a common feature, which is pain!

  • Peritoneal endometriosis - the outbeaks on the peritoneum grow during menstrual cycle and bleed during menstruation analogously to uterine endometrium, which create a wound. Peritoenum is highly innerved, so bleeding and wounds in such area cause abdominal pain. Irritation of the peritoneum can also cause nausea and vomiting.
  • Ovarian endometriosis in form of endometrial cyst. The endometrial cys is padded with endometrial lesions that grow during the cycle and bleed during menstruation increasing the volume of the cyst. It is always accompanied by adhesions. The ovarian coating is innerved, so the increase of ovary's volumen cause pain which can be evem exacerbated due to existing adhesions.
  • Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis. Endometriosis infiltrating the bladder causes pain and bleeding from the bladder during menstruation. The situation is analogous when it comes to affected intestine, which often cause constipation or diarrhea, discomfort during defecation and annoying back ache usually radiating to the lower limbs.
  • Adenomyosis or uterine endometriosis. This form of endometriosis grows inside the muscle of the uterus. Its bleeding intensifies abdominal pains and painful uterus contractions during the menstruation.

Fig. Woaman reproductive system changed as a result of many years of endometriosis.

Excerbation of the symptoms

The severity of symptoms varies and does not always corre­late with the degreee of endome­triosis develop­ment. It is strictly depen­dent on the locations of the disease's lesions. About 20% of women suffe­ring with endome­triosis does not feel pain symptoms at all. Often the only symptom is infertility. The majority of women simply experience painful menstru­aton with inten­si­fied pain lasting for 1-2 days and remedied with the use of painkil­lers. Unfor­tu­na­tely, there are also those whose pain is unbeara­ble, and the ailments persist almost throughout the entire cycle.


Larger lesions can be recognized with the use of ultra­sound and magnetic resonance imaging. Small changes can only be seen with a camera in laparo­scopic surgery. Unfor­tu­na­tely, this invasive diagnosis is in many cases postponed for many years due to diffe­rent reasons.

In order to meet patients expec­ta­tions, Miracolo Clinic intro­duced 2 types of minimal diagno­stic proce­du­res. One of them is a mini­la­pa­ro­scopy with 3-mm abdominal incisions. The second is TVL - trans­va­ginal laparo­scopy offering excel­lent image quality and precis­sion in detec­ting endome­trial lesions. Trans­va­ginal laparo­scopy leaves no scarring on the abdomen. What is more, the proce­du­recan be performed without anesthe­tic. See our offer of minimally invasive diagno­stic TVL.

Surgical treatment

In most women careful removal of all possible disease lesions and adhesions leads to signi­fi­cant impro­ve­ment of the symptoms or often disap­pear comple­tely.

Wondering if you also have endometriosis?

The sooner you diagnose this disease, the more likely you are to cure it completely. It means not only a better quality of life due to the lack of menstrual ailments, but also a restoration of your natural fertility.